Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) EMDR is a form of psychotherapy that includes an exposure-based therapy (with multiple brief, interrupted exposures to traumatic material), eye movement, and recall and verbalization of traumatic memories of an event or events. It therefore combines multiple theoretical perspectives and techniques, including cognitive behavior therapy. Some point to the use of directed eye movements as a feature markedly distinguishing this form of therapy from other cognitive behavior approaches. Others point to the fact that traumatic material need not be verbalized; instead, patients are directed to think about their traumatic experiences without having to discuss them. Like many of the studies of other cognitive behavior and exposure therapies, most of the well-designed EMDR studies have been small, but several meta-analyses have demonstrated efficacy similar to that of other forms of cognitive and behavior therapy (189ï¿½192). Studies also suggest that the eye movements are neither necessary nor sufficient to the outcome (193ï¿½195), but these findings remain controversial (196, 197). Although it appears that efficacy may be related to the components of the technique common to other exposure-based cognitive therapies, as in the previously described cognitive behavior therapies, further study is necessary to clearly identify the effective subcomponents of combined techniques. Follow-up studies are also needed to determine whether observed improvements are maintained over time.
Original Work Citation
American Psychiatric Association. (2004, November). Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines
“Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder,” Francine Shapiro Library, accessed November 24, 2020, https://emdria.omeka.net/items/show/15786.