Eye movement desensitization of medical phobias:  Two case studies


We treated two medical phobic subjects with eye movement desensitization (EMD). Using detailed images of fear-related events, the treatment design conformed to an additive, within-series phase change to examine enduring effects. Results indicated that both subjects' verbal reports of fear decreased substantially using the EMD procedure. There were no consistent changes in heart rate. Similarly, self-reported fear toward a simulated blood draw decreased, but heart rate and blood pressure did not. Data for a number of standardized measures of medical fear indicated posttreatment reduction for both subjects. Anecdotal reports of medical procedures revealed limited generalization of treatment effects.






Jeffery M. Lohr
David F. Tolin
Ronald A. Kleinknecht

Original Work Citation

Lohr, J., Tolin, D., & Kleinknecht, R. A. (1995, June). Eye movement desensitization of medical phobias: Two case studies. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 26(2), 141-151. doi:10.1016/0005-7916(95)00011-N



“Eye movement desensitization of medical phobias:  Two case studies,” Francine Shapiro Library, accessed September 27, 2020, https://emdria.omeka.net/items/show/16100.

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