Case presentation of a tattoo-mutilated, Bosnian torture survivor


Torture is used to create fear, destroy individuals and communities, and to suppress unwanted political or religious views. The survivor of torture often endures significant physical and psychological trauma. The basis for treating this trauma varies according to individual needs, community resources, programme designs, and cultural acceptance. The case presented here focuses on torture occurring during the Bosnian conflict of 1992 and demonstrates how the utilisation of a community-based, multidisciplinary network model can be effective in helping survivors through the recovery process. The unique circumstances of the study identify factors of imprisonment, rape, deprivation, physical violence and, particularly, body mutilation through tattooing.






Ronnie D. Bower
Lisa Pahl
Michael A. Bernstein

Original Work Citation

Bower, R. D., Pahl, L., & Bernstein, M. A. (2004). Case presentation of a tattoo-mutilated, Bosnian torture survivor. Torture, 14(1), 16-24



“Case presentation of a tattoo-mutilated, Bosnian torture survivor,” Francine Shapiro Library, accessed October 19, 2021,

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