Eye movement desensitization across images:  A single case design


The use of eye movement desensitization (EMD) was investigated in a multiple baseline across two images. The subject was diagnosed as suffering from PTSD and had suffered from two distinct traumas which continued to generate intrusive disturbing images. Dependent variables included self-report information (Subjective Units of Distress, behavioral symptoms reports) and physiological data (heart rate and systolic blood pressure). Subjective and physiological data both demonstrated significant changes during the course of treatment which were maintained at a 2-month follow-up. This study represents the first investigation of EMD with multiple images within a single subject experimental design. Findings suggest that generalization across the images under investigation was not demonstrated. EMD treatment gains were clinically significant. However, the immediate and profound effects often cited in the literature were not demonstrated.






Robert W. Montgomery
Teodoro Ayllon

Original Work Citation

Montgomery, R. W., & Ayllon, T. (1994, March). Eye movement desensitization across images: A single case design. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 25(1), 23-28. doi:10.1016/0005-7916(94)90059-0



“Eye movement desensitization across images:  A single case design,” Francine Shapiro Library, accessed October 29, 2020, https://emdria.omeka.net/items/show/16830.

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