Unflinching empathy: Counselors and tortured refugees


After the events of September 11, 2001, and at a time in world history when refugees and displaced persons are moving about the world in numbers that are unprecedented (United States Committee for Refugees, 2001), the likelihood of counselors encountering refugees is increased regardless of their treatment settings, from schools to government agencies. Civilians are increasingly at risk for being victimized by organized political violence (Porter & Haslam, 2001), and the United States alone hosts almost half a million refugees (United States Committee for Refugees, 2001). In the article "Refugee Survivors of Torture: Trauma and Treatment," Gorman (2001) illustrated dynamics that may go unrecognized by clinicians who work with these complex individuals and families, and he provided a holistic conceptualization of these dynamics.






Sylvia A. Marotta

Original Work Citation

Marotta, S. A. (2003, Winter). Unflinching empathy:Counselors and tortured refugees. Journal of Counseling and Development, 81(1), 111-114. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6678.2003.tb00232.x



“Unflinching empathy: Counselors and tortured refugees,” Francine Shapiro Library, accessed October 29, 2020, https://emdria.omeka.net/items/show/16947.

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