EMDR optimism protocol: A pilot study on athletes


Peterson and Seligman (1984) developed a theory based on the psychological characteristic of optimism. They discovered that a more pessimistic explanatory style is correlated with a deeper depression. The most optimistic explanatory style for a bad event is external, specific and temporary. For a good event the explanatory style is reverse. The pessimistic explanatory style evaluates the causes of bad and good events in the opposite way. Seligman and al (1990) administrated the Attribution Style Questionnaire (ASQ) to swimmers. After negative feedback, optimistic swimmers swim significantly faster compared to pessimistic swimmers. Goldwurm and al. 23 (2006) showed the efficacy of an optimism training proposed by Seligman. Andrew Leeds worked in 1997 on a new protocol known as Resource Development and Installation (RDI). This protocol has been reported to be useful in ego strengthening and stabilization. RDI protocol comes from EMDR that has been extensively researched and proven effective for the treatment of trauma even on athletes (Graham, 2004). An expansion of the basic EMDR protocol, called “EMDR Peak Performance protocol” has been developed by Lendl & Foster (1997) for enhancing performance in the workplace, to aid in the reduction of performance anxiety experienced by creative and performing artists, and for competition preparation and psychological recovery from injury in athletes. This orientation leads us to go on with a nonpathologizing view developing optimistic client’s potential with the elaboration of this new protocol that we call: the EMDR optimism protocol (Laizeau and Nousse 2008). It has been developed on the basis of a study lead on rugbymen and swimmers. The aim of our study was to show that this EMDR optimism protocol can easily improve athletic performance.






Martine Laizeau
Anne Nousse
Nadia Chakroun

Original Work Citation

Laizeau, M., Nousse, A., & Chakroun, N. (2008, June). EMDR optimism protocol: A pilot study on athletes. Presentation at the 9th EMDR Europe Association Conference, London, England



“EMDR optimism protocol: A pilot study on athletes,” Francine Shapiro Library, accessed October 23, 2020, https://emdria.omeka.net/items/show/18232.

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