ECEM (eye closure, eye movements): Application to depersonalization disorder


Eye Closure, Eye Movements (ECEM) is a hypnotically-based approach to treatment that incorporates eye movements adapted from the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) protocol in conjunction with hypnosis for the treatment of depersonalization disorder. Depersonalization Disorder has been differentiated from post-traumatic stress disorders and has recently been conceptualized as a subtype of panic disorder (Baker et al., 2003; David, Phillips, Medford, & Sierra, 2004; Segui et. al., 2000). During ECEM, while remaining in a hypnotic state, clients self-generated six to seven trials of eye movements to reduce anticipatory anxiety associated with depersonalization disorder. Eye movements were also used to process triggers that elicited breath holding, often followed by episodes of depersonalization. Hypnotic suggestions were used to reverse core symptoms of depersonalization, subjectively described as "feeling unreal" (Simeon et al., 1997).






Harriet E. Hollander

Original Work Citation

Hollander, H. E. (2009, October). ECEM (eye closure, eye movements): Application to depersonalization disorder. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 52(2), 95-109. doi:10.1080/00029157.2009.10401701



“ECEM (eye closure, eye movements): Application to depersonalization disorder,” Francine Shapiro Library, accessed January 25, 2021,

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