Active ingredient study: Preliminary findings


In 1994, TIR, V/KD, EMDR, and TFT were investigated through a systematic clinical demonstration (SCD) methodology at Florida State University. This methodology guides the examination but does not test the effectiveness of clinical approaches. Each approach was demonstrated by nationally recognized practitioners following a similar protocol, though their methods of treatment varied. A total of 39 research participants were treated, and results showed that all four approaches had some immediate impact on clients and appear to also have some lasting impact. The paper also discusses the theoretical, clinical, and methodological implications of the study. [Text, p. 116]


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Joyce L. Carbonell

Original Work Citation

Carbonell, J. L. (2005). Active ingredient study: Preliminary findings. In V. R. Volkman, (Ed.), Beyond trauma: Conservations in trauma incident reduction (2nd ed.) (pp. 116-124). Ann Arbor, Michigan: Loving Healing Press



“Active ingredient study: Preliminary findings,” Francine Shapiro Library, accessed March 8, 2021,

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