The development and uses of the “blind to therapist“ EMDR protocol


The blind to therapist (B2T) protocol (Blore & Holmshaw, 2009a, 2009b) was devised to circumvent client unwillingness to describe traumatic memory content during eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). It has been used with at least six clinical presentations: • Reassertion of control among “executive decision makers“ • Shame and embarrassment • Minimizing potential for vicarious traumatization • Cultural issues: avoiding distress being witnessed by a fellow countryman • Need for the presence of a translator versus prevention of information “leakage“ • Reducing potential stalling in processing: client with severe stammer This article details the history, development, and current status of the protocol, and provides case vignettes to illustrate each use. Clinical issues encountered when using the protocol and “dovetailing“ the B2T protocol back into the standard protocol are also addressed.






David C. Blore
E. Manda Holmshaw
Ann Swift
Sally Standart
Deborah M. Fish

Original Work Citation

Blore, D. C., Holmshaw, E. M., Swift, A., Standart, S., & Fish, D. M. (2013). The development and uses of the "blind to therapist" EMDR protocol. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7(2), 95-105. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.7.2.95



“The development and uses of the “blind to therapist“ EMDR protocol,” Francine Shapiro Library, accessed August 4, 2021,

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