EMDR integrated group treatment protocol for secondary traumatic stress/vicarious trauma in first responders
First responders experience daily exposure to critical incidences, which can increase the likelihood of developing vicarious trauma (VT) and secondary traumatic stress (STS). The proposed study utilized a quantitative quasi-experimental research design. Considerations in this study were whether the proposed treatment, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing-integrated group treatment protocol (EMDR-IGTP) was effective in decreasing PTSD-like symptoms associated with VT/STS and increasing post-traumatic growth (PTG). PTG was defined as positive outcomes after exposure to traumatic events. It is believed that growth transpires from suffering when one’s previously held beliefs, thoughts, goals, or assumptions about one’s self and the world have been challenged. The adaptive information processing (AIP) theory views dysfunction as the maladaptive storage of information that occurs when memories are stored in a frozen or state specific form making them unable to link up to more adaptive memories. Therefore, healthy functioning is when experiences and emotions are stored in an available format for future use that can guide behaviors and actions. Of the 23 participants that began the study, only 18 completed the study. Participants identified as Nurse, EMT, Paramedic, and Firefighter. They completed pre and post measurements on the IES-R, ISLES, and PTGI. The participants showed a significant difference p < 0.001 on IES-R scores in arousal, intrusion, and total score. None of the participants reached significant within group changes on ISLES or PTGI. However, a median increase of four points was noted on the ISLES footing in the world category.
Original Work Citation
Morrissey, M. (2016, October). EMDR integrated group treatment protocol for secondary traumatic stress/vicarious trauma in first responders. (Dissertation, Northcentral University)
“EMDR integrated group treatment protocol for secondary traumatic stress/vicarious trauma in first responders,” Francine Shapiro Library, accessed February 26, 2021, https://emdria.omeka.net/items/show/24583.