Tactile stimulation but not the bilateral horizontal eye movement modify behavior and pupillary dilatation in attentional control tasks

Description

Background:
The Eye movement desensitization and reproccesing E.M.D.R. is a highly effective therapy for post-traumatic stress and recently, E.M.D.R has shown efficacy in other anxious disorders. Several studies have shown an association between cognitive processes such as attention and horizontal movement of the eyes. However, the brain mechanisms that explain this association are not fully understood. There have not been studies that incorporate other modalities of stimulation such as tactile. Recently, it has been observed that the change in the pupillary diameter can be a non-invasive and reliable marker to distinguish different attentional networks and therefore a physiological potential target to understand the underlying mechanisms of E.M.D.R.

Objective:
To determine the effects of bilateral (tactile) stimulation and horizontal eye movement in the performance of tasks that requires attentional control.

Method:
21 healthy participants (13 women and 8 men) performed the ANT-R attentional task in three sessions during three different days. Before and after each session participant executed three types of stimulation (vertical, horizontal and tactile) and one non-motion stimulation. Tactile stimulation was performed using the Neurotek tac/audio scan® system. Horizontal, vertical, and non-motion condition a black circle was projected onto a gray background on a screen that was at a distance of 57 cm from the eyes of each participant who responded to the ANT-R attentional task. A self-assessment test was included and pupillary dilation was recorded using an Eyelink II eye tracker.

Results:
The repeated measures ANOVA (F (3, 60) = 6.76, p <0.05 N2p = 0.25.) shows that tactile stimulation significantly decreases response times compared to other conditions. Besides, self-assessment scores show that the perception of better performance correlate with the tactile condition r = -0.464; p <0.05; r2xy = 0.22. On the other hand, the changes in the pupil diameter are reflected in the session of non-movement, horizontal and tactile are the same, but there is a different pattern of dilation compared to vertical stimulation.

Discussion:
Tactile stimulation decreases response times as reported by Edlin et al 2013 for horizontal eye movement, therefore, it is necessary to find the structures at the base of both types of stimulation for explain how is the neural mechanism action. One possible explanation for this effect is that bilateral stimulation allows the targeting and discrimination of relevant stimuli quickly facilitating voluntary motor reproduction. This is possible to associate with the noradrenergic inputs of the locus coeruleos that are involved in the attention mechanism (Aston-Jones and Cohen 2005) and behavioral excitation (Berridge et al., 1997) which allow to regulate the anxiety produced by the task, facilitating thus the voluntary motor response decreasing the response times.

Format

Conference

Language

English

Author(s)

Claudio Peñafiel

Original Work Citation

Peñafiel, C. (2018, June). Tactile stimulation but not the bilateral horizontal eye movement modify behavior and pupillary dilatation in attentional control tasks. Poster presented at the 19th EMDR Europe Conference, Strasbourg, France

Collection

Citation

“Tactile stimulation but not the bilateral horizontal eye movement modify behavior and pupillary dilatation in attentional control tasks,” Francine Shapiro Library, accessed May 6, 2021, https://emdria.omeka.net/items/show/25244.

Output Formats